Collecting Fall Herbs: Field Day Friday

Do you look at the beauty of weeds like I do? Fields of the yellow tasseled goldenrod, roadsides covered in frilly blues of  chicory, happy looking Black eyed Susan’s and the purples of the many different types of thistle invigorate the sense of beauty as far as the eye can see. I see beauty all around me, but I also see the innate medicinal value of these plants as well. We have many of them growing on our farm. Some would tell me to cut them down, to pull them out, but I won’t. Instead, as nature does her work, I allow them to spread naturally. My husband has known me to bring home seeds and roots of some plants to transplant in our herb garden as well.

Being part Cherokee and having learned much from my elders, I know that all year long we are blessed with opportunity to gather wild herbs to save and use for different purposes. I can’t prescribe what herbs another should use, but I can share with you what different ones are used for, and allow you to make decisions for yourself. Also, having practiced as a Registered Nurse for 26 years, I will be the first to tell you to talk with your personal physician before using any herbal, holistic type of healthcare regimen. He or she and you, should decide what is best for your personal condition and go from there.

Today, I want to share with you one of the fall herbs that I’ve gathered, it’s medicinal values and how to collect and dry. Herbs, in general, should be collected in the mornings, after the dew has dried, but before the heat of the midday sun. Most herbs may be dried on a screen, covered with another screen or cheesecloth to keep off insects. Some herbs may be hung upside down, in small bunches, and allowed to air dry. Some people advocate drying herbs in a dehydrator or in the low heat of an oven. It’s a personal choice, but at our homestead, we don’t use either of those methods. My pantry looks like an upside down garden at the moment, and smells heavenly.

Today, let’s talk about goldenrod. goldenrod  These flowers amaze me. For so long, they’re been regarded as one of the worst allergens of the fall. They can cause issues for some, but do you know how medicinally good they are? Used for hundreds of yeas by Native Americans, they have antifungal properties, the saponins, that can help alleviate such yeast infections as oral thrush when a tea made from it is used as a gargle. It can be used for skin yeast infections or those elsewhere when used as a wash or rinse over it. Gargled, as a tea, it helps to stop coughs and sore throats. As a weak tea, it can help stop diarrhea naturally, without having to resort to chemical compounds found in over-the-counter medications. It’s been found to be an effective treatment in colitis and IBS.

Goldenrod tea is also beneficial for the urinary tract, kidneys and bladder. The saponins, tannins,  and flavonoids found in the flowers and leaves help keep infection and stones from forming in the urinary system.

Mixed with dandelion and thyme in a tea, it is an effective immune stimulating drink.

The usual dosage for a tea for ingestion or gargle is about 1 teaspoonful of the dried herb in a cupful of boiling water. Allow the herb to steep for about 10-15 minutes for the full effect, strain, sweeten with honey if desired, and drink. For gastrointestinal issues, it’s recommended to drink about 4 cups (1 quart) of tea daily.

We keep goldenrod planted on our farm, not just for medicine, but to draw in pollinators. goldenrod with bee

I love watching bees and butterflies visit the golden fronds goldenrod with butterfly. and coating their legs and bodies with the powdery pollen.

Goldenrod is associated with fall, the waning of the heat of the summer and watching the trees slip into the last final burst of glory. It’s fall already?  I am not ready to give summer up quite yet.


What in the heck is fibromyalgia

I have it, probably have had it for years, undiagnosed, made me whine and ache and hurt and sleep and get depressed and, you name it. Now that my blessed doctor in Jefferson City, MO has diagnosed the problem, the next step is to learn more about it, why it happens and what to do about it. I am way too young to be relegated to the rocking chair on the front porch, waving to people as they drive down the road.

Fibromyalgia…nasty, nasty, nasty diagnosis for anyone, even one’s worst enemy. What is it? It’s thought to be caused by a low level of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is the “calming agent” the calming neurotransmitter. In patients with fibromyalgia, the brain doesn’t make enough serotonin, therefore the brain goes into an “anxiety mode”. It allows more pain transmitters to occur. It’s almost like a rapid fire mode of sending pain signals everywhere in the body, the hands, feet, legs, upper and lower back, abdomen. It creates migraines, nausea, constipation alternating with diarrhea, “brain fog” or a sudden inability to think straight, depression. Fibromyalgia can be triggered by stress, sleep disorders, depression, trauma, multiple surgeries, serious illnesses. It can be accentuated by certain illnesses such as osteoarthritis, lupus, or rheumatoid arthritis. Fibro tends to affect more women than it does men.

Muscle weakness and decreased energy levels are common with fibro. One needs to keep themselves in as good of a physical shape as possible. Yes, it’s painful, and yes, it will make you tired, but one must continue a mild exercise routine or they will be bed bound in a very short time. Mild exercise such as walking, yoga, and arm and leg exercises are recommended. Do not do high impact exercises or strenuous exercise. It isn’t necessary and it will claim too much energy to do so. I am still in physical therapy, something my pain management physician recommended before the diagnosis of fibro was confirmed. Simple exercises such as holding a wooden dowel and squatting to a chair sitting level, using a 1 or 2 pound weight (I am now up to a 4 pound weight) of mild resistance pulling my elbows straight back, level with my chest, to behind my back to build and maintain shoulder muscles and decrease the pain there. I also do leg lifts, with the toes pointed upwards, wearing a 2 pound weight on my ankles. There is another exercise that’s a bit harder, but it increases dexterity and balance. With that exercise, one should be on their hands and knees, with the knees spread apart at least 12 inches. Start out with no weights then add them 2 pounds on the ankles and 1 pound on the wrists. Lift the left leg and the right arm at the same time. Keep toes pointed downward and hand with the palms facing outward. Then, reverse this and lift the right leg, toes down and the left arm, palms out, 5 times on each side. It’s hard to do at first. I felt like a turtle about to fall over. It does increase coordination and balance if you keep at it. These are just some examples of the low impact exercises one can do to maintain muscle strength and abate pain.

There are many meds on the market to help combat the pain. Most of them are not pain meds, per se, but are meds used to treat seizures, meds to counteract the lack of certain neurotransmitters in the brain and to help the brain secrete more of the needed neurotransmitters. I won’t go into medication regimens here, but if you are a fibro patient, or are taking any of these meds, be sure to talk with your physician about the benefits and side effects of taking these medications. Many of them have serious side effects, so know what you’re taking, and don’t stop the medication abruptly or on your own. If any of the side effects are noticed, ones that your physician has talked with you about, call him or her immediately to have a medication review and/or change if needed.

Home remedies are common in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Sleep is important. By that, I mean the deep sleep, the REM sleep or dream cycle sleep that’s important for the body to actually rest. Several herbal treatments are available to help enhance that sleep. Those meds are melatonin and 5-HTP. 5-HTP is a building block for serotonin and is available over the counter, as is melatonin. Serotonin is associated with increased pain levels, depression anxiety and insomnia. Often, fibromyalgia patients have restless leg syndrome. One treatment for this is calcium with Vitamin D added. It is prescription, not available in this form over the counter. Magnesium may be an aid to combat restless leg syndrome. St. John’s Wort is an herbal treatment for depression that could be associated with fibro. Most rheumatologists prescribe an antidepressant to go along with other medications as an adjunct treatment. Other herbal supplements such as the B vitamins, black cohosh, milk thistle, lavender and cayenne have been used, but their effects are not known at this time. Again, don’t use these herbal treatments without the approval of your primary care physician, pain management physician or rheumatologist. Many herbs may interact negatively with prescription medications you might be taking.

Diet: Although the role of food isn’t exactly known in fibromyalgia, one should pay close attention to certain foods. Does the food make one have bowel issues such as constipation or diarrhea? If so, those foods should be eliminated from the diet. Lower salt intake, concentrating on Vitamin C containing foods, those with protein, vitamin B, D, and A are important as they build muscle mass and increase bone strength. This would include lean meat, green and yellow vegetables, dairy products, orange vegetables and fruits such as carrots, cantaloupe, sweet potatoes, pumpkin are all good vitamin A producers. Vitamin B producers would include potatoes, leeks, onions, turnips, whole grains, nuts, pork and green vegetables. It’s important to keep the muscles supplied with the proper nutrients to be able to work, to move.

There’s still much research going into fibromyalgia and one will read many stories. All I can do from a nursing standpoint, and as a fellow fibro patient, is to encourage you to read only from sources that are credible. WedMD,,, and this article: are excellent sources of credible information. I would encourage anyone suffering from fibro to join a support group be it online or a live format. Talking with others, learning their limitations, their treatment modalities, tried and tested, failed or passed modalities, enables one to make wise and proper care for their own illness process. fibro poem

And One Last Elderberry Recipe to Share with you

elderberry flowers

Refreshing Elderflower Drink

At the beginning of elderberry season, you have about 2 weeks to gather elderflowers before they drop off, forming the tiny green pellet sized balls that will eventually turn into the wonderfully, medicinally, rich in Vitamin C berries that are well known for their health benefits. Elderberries grow on canes, with a smooth tan-gray bark, usually in clusters along the wetlands as I explained earlier. Elder flower clusters are a creamy white, have a lemony smell and are in clusters about the size of a dinner plate. If you’ve ever taken walks in the woods, along the creeks or a river bank, there’s no mistaking an elder cluster from another tree. The canes can grow 8-10 feet high or higher, are very pliable, and actually, can be transplanted in their smaller stages to a place on your own farm.

For a wonderful, crisp, lemony flavored drink that’s high in Vitamin C and antioxidants, gather the flower clusters, rinse in a mild solution of vinegar and water to dislodge bugs or other debris, rinse and drain.

Use about 2-4 small clusters of the flowers from a flower head, put into boiling hot water and allow to steep for about 20-30 minutes. Strain the liquid, sweeten if desired.

It can be consumed as a hot tea, or chilled and ice added for a refreshing summertime drink.

NOTE: If you’re really crazy about elder flower tea as I am, you can dry elder flowers, store in an airtight container and use 1 teaspoon full in a tea strainer or a small muslin tea bag, in a cup of boiling water, steep and strain as above, to enjoy the summery fresh flavor of elder tea all winter long. It makes a nice gift too!!!


Medicinal Herb of the Day: Elderberry (sambucus sp.)


I owe you one from yesterday, so here’s another for your enjoyment.

The health benefits of elderberries are all the rage now. Elderberry farming is becoming increasingly popular and quite a money making venture for some entrepreneurs.  Personally, I love to harvest elderberries from the wild since I know that they’re pure, wholesome and not tainted with chemicals. You generally find them growing in wetlands, along creek banks, river banks, ponds and such. I would not recommend harvesting them from the roadside since they have become contaminated with vehicle exhaust fumes and residue, from roadside spraying, etc.  Let me share with you a LONG story about elderberries and how good they are for you.


Antiemetic (relieves nausea)

Poultices help relieve engorged breasts on humans as well as animals.

Poultices help increase healing of slow to heal wounds

Wonderful in salves for skin conditions such as boils, eczema, acne,

Poultices have an analgesic effect and can help ease the pain of toothaches and also help reduce the bacterial load of the infection in the gums

Wonderful antioxidant properties for heart ailments

Used to treat colic

Used to help treat venereal disease

Used to help alleviate water retention

Used to help decrease fever

Used as a blood purifier

Used as a pain reliever in poultices and salves for arthritis and muscle aches and pains

Helps to relieve congestion

In tonics, helps to alleviate coughs and the symptoms of the common cold

Can be used in suppositories, to relieve nausea if oral products cannot be taken.

To make a tincture.

Use only fully ripe elderberries. They should be a blue-black color and juicy. Do not use red or green berries as these will make the tincture or tonic bitter. Soak the pods of berries in a mild solution of baking soda or vinegar and water. This will not only clean the berries, but will remove bugs and other debris. Rinse and drain the berries in a colander. I use my fingers to remove the berries, but know that elderberries will stain anything they touch to a nice shade of lavender. On fabrics, the stain is permanent, so wear an apron!! Gently roll the berries off their stems into a large bowl. You can use a fork to dislodge the berries if you choose, but I find this to be slower and more tedious than using my hands. After all, we’re farm wives and what’s more to seeing a farm wife with a few stains on her hands, right? another easy way to separate the berries from the stems is to put the washed, drained berries in a zip-lock bag and freeze them. Frozen berries pop off like magic. After removing them from the stems, rinse again, and drain into a colander.

To make the tincture, put enough berries in a sterilized glass container to fill about 1/2 way up to the top. Cover the berries with vodka, everclear or brandy. The alcohol should be at least 80% proof. Cover and allow to sit in a dark, cool place for at least one month. Swirl (do not shake) the container occasionally during the tincturing process. After a month, strain the berries through a cheesecloth, rebottle the tincture in a sterile amber or blue bottle, and  label. As long as it’s kept in a cool, dark place, it will keep for several years. 

To use the tincture, measure the tincture using about 1 teaspoon in a glass of water. Take this about 3 times per day at the start of a cold or the flu.


Elder Rob

10 c. Elderberry Juice
5 c. Sugar
1/4 c, whole cloves,
1/4 cup chopped fresh ginger (or 1 tablespoon powdered).

Combine all and stir to dissolve sugar. Cook until thickened slightly. Strain out cloves and ginger, if desired. Store in a sterilized Jar or bottle and water bath can for 15 minutes.  Wonderful for coughs and colds.





Medicinal Herb of the Day: Comfrey


Also known as:
– bone knit
– common comfrey,
– knitback
– knit bond
– Quaker comfrey
-black root
-slippery root
-wallwort. *Note: This should not be confused with salsify/oyster plant (Tragopogon porrifolius) , a garden root vegetable, which is not related.

Range and Identification of Comfrey
Comfrey is native to Europe through Siberia. It has been introduced to North America and other temperate regions, and can be found throughout much of the U.S. and up into Canada (see map). It prefers moist soil, and is often found as a garden escapee. Russian comfrey (S.x uplandicum) is a hybrid between common comfrey and prickly or rough comfrey and prefers drier ground.
The comfrey plant is a perennial, blooming in the spring/summer and dying back in fall/winter. It has a dense, clumping habit and grows up to 3 feet in height. Flowering stalks have leaves attached in an alternating pattern up the stem.

Comfrey flowers are borne in clusters at the top of the stem. They are delicate and bell-shaped, with only a slight aroma. The blooms measure about 1/2 ” in length, and come in an assortment of colors including white, pink and blue. The plant looks somewhat similar to foxglove, but foxglove flowers are larger and more showy.

Comfrey leaves are lance shaped, and may reach up to 1 1/2 feet in length. Like borage, the leaves are hairy and rough. (Comfrey is in the borage family.) As you can see, the veining is quite pronounced. On the leaf stem, there are small green wings that flair out on either side of the stem.

Comfrey roots have a branching habit, forming dense clusters and making them difficult to remove. They are brittle and break easily, and a new plant will regrow from the leftover bits. (Don’t plant them in a spot unless you’re sure you want them there.) The roots are dark brown on the outside and white on the inside and measure less than 1/2 inch in diameter.

Medicinal Uses of Comfrey
Comfrey contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are naturally occurring plant toxins. As mentioned in the wildlife section, if consumed in large amounts, these can be toxic to the liver. There is a very detailed discussion of potential comfrey toxicity on the GardenWeb forums, in which the author states that based on available data, a human would need to consume nearly their weight in comfrey leaves to cause death. Clearly, this is not an issue under normal circumstances.

The leaves of comfrey have a much lower concentration of the toxins than the roots (almost none at certain times of the year) and are considered safer for internal use (comfrey root is no longer recommended by many herbalists for internal use). Backyard Medicine suggests that comfrey tea should not be used for more than six weeks at a time. It should also not be used if you are pregnant or nursing, or given to young children. *Note: Russian comfrey has higher pyrrolizidine alkaloid levels than common comfrey.

As its many folk names suggest, comfrey is one of the best herbs for healing broken bones, sprains, strains, bruises and tears. You can consume 1 2 cups of comfrey tea per day until the damage heals.

To make a fresh comfrey poultice to apply topically, dig up comfrey roots, clean and chop into short lengths. Blend with an equal amount of fresh comfrey leaf and just enough water to mix. Puree until relatively smooth. Apply to a piece of gauze and place over the affected body part and cover with breathable wrapping. Replace daily. (From Backyard Medicine.)

The leaves can also be dried and infused in olive oil, and this oil can be made into a salve. If you don’t have comfrey available, you can purchase a variety of comfrey products from a reputable herbal provider.

Comfrey may also be used to treat circulatory conditions such as varicose veins and spider veins. Backyard Medicine also suggest that it may be helpful for healing old wounds, such as surgical scars, and minor cuts. It is not recommended for topical treatment of deep cuts or puncture wounds, as it may cause the would to close at the top before it heal underneath, increasing the risk of abscess/infection.

One of the active compounds in comfrey is allantoin. This anti-inflammatory chemical stimulates cell proliferation and supports the immune system. The plant also contains tannins, mucilage, gum, resin and volatile oil. The roots were commonly used for bronchitis and other chest complaints, and for stomach issues such as ulcers, but now other herbs are generally recommended. The Holistic Herbal discusses more of these other uses.
As always, any medical information is for informational purposes only. Always exercise caution when using any wild plants and make sure you have positively identified the plant.

-helps treat digestive tract ulcers when taken as a tea
-very widely known for it’s wound healing abilities
-used in treatment of respiratory ailments
-helps treat gallbladder disease
-helps heal burns
-doesn’t actually heal broken bones, but relieves inflammation and
pain of broken bones
-helps in regeneration of skin cells with wounds
-roots of the plant contain more healing properties than the leaves,
but leaves do contain great healing values.
-salves are wonderful in treatment of acne, especially when combined
with tea tree oil or lavendar
-acts as an expectorant for coughs
-as a tea, can be used as an earwash to help clear inflammed ear
-used for treating arthritis and gout
-Antispasmodic for treating cystitis
-when used as an oil, helps lessen scarring

** Be extremely cautious with using comfrey to heal wounds. It has a tendency to heal from “outside in” and will close the surface area of a wound while the inner area is still open.
**Do not use the roots when creating internal remedies. Use internally ONLY with the supervision of a certified herbal medical practitioner or healthcare practitioner!! Comfrey can be toxic if taken internally.

per: ***

Reconstituting Balm,
Macerate around three ounce or 100 gm of cut and dehydrated comfrey root and add 3 T or 50 ml of superior variety olive oil to it. Leave the substance as it is for around two weeks. You also need the following items to prepare the reconstituting ointment with comfrey roots:
· Twenty drops of lavender essential oil
· One cupful (250 ml) of castor oil
· One and a quarter ounce (40 gm) of beeswax

After two weeks, filter the liquid extract from comfrey roots and olive oil in a separate pot. Next, thaw the beeswax in a saucepan and add the two types of vegetable oils. Keep stirring the mixture on the oven and when they are properly blended, add 20 drops of the lavender essential oil. Decant the blend in a small dark green colored jar and allow it to cool. Store the balm in a cool dry place for use when necessary.


Contemplating Keeping Bees.

Langstroth-Hive-Parts”>top bar hive

Image, We’re striving for self sufficiency in every sense of the word. That means getting off grid, producing our own food, getting completely out of debt and the list goes on and on. I’ve been studying beekeeping and have my own fears about bees, but I know that honey is probably one of the most natural antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal, wound healing, allergy healing and downright good tasting foods available. Bees are livestock and should be treated as such. Am I afraid of bees? Absolutely. It’s a learning curve that I need to conquer before we put in hives. I keep an epi-pen with me at all times, just because I am sensitive to bee bites. It’s been awhile since I’ve actually been stung, but a bite will make whelps on my skin as big as silver dollars. Yet. I walked out to a couple of beehives with my adopted dad, and his bees were passive, landed on me, tasted the salt on my skin and flew away.  As I wrote to a friend who has raised bees for decades, this is what he shared with me.

“Top bar hives are common in third world countries and have some fiercely devoted advocates in the United States too. But, as one who has had both, it takes more skill to run top bar hives than the conventional equipment. the modern hive developed by Rev. Langstroth and since fine-tuned by generations of beekeepers, has greatly simplified beekeeping efforts.

If you are desperately poor-and have a fine mentor, you might do better with top bar hives. But, I recommend that new beekeepers start off with conventional equipment if at all possible. when you come experienced with it, and want to go back to primitive equipment, then by all means, go for it.

As sources for up-to-date beekeeping references, I suggest you check out “Bee Culture” magazine and editor Kim Flottum’s blog.  Also check out Keith Delaplane. Both are incredible experts and the best at presenting modern beekeeping worldwide. They can be found doing a Google search.

If you are deathly afraid of bees, this may not be for you. The first hurdle is to get over the fear of bees. You WILL get stung from time to time, even if you dress up in a spacesuit. It’s a fact. You will “cook” in a spacesuit, so why not accept that an occasional sting will not kill you and dress to enjoy the work.

A bee veil and some tan Dickies will do the job for most people as far as dress. if the bees are testy on a certain day, the hobbyist has the option to wait for another day to do hive work. If the bees are always testy, re-queen the bee to a better line of worker bees.

And, I believe there are some mild benefits to an occasional sting.  It tunes up your immune system and helps fight against autoimmune diseases like arthritis.

It’s far better to start with two hives rather than one.  Get your hives ready and get your bees early, like in the last week of March in the South and no later than early May in the north so the bees can get established.

Think of your starter hives as baby animals. You are going to have to feed them until they can feed themselves.

And, learn the ropes before you jump into it. Some people think they can get bees, park them in an out of the way place and forget about them until it’s time to do an occasional “robbing” of honey.

Now, if you rob the bees of their honey, they will starve to death, so learn how to harvest a surplus instead.  Learn the ways of good bee husbandry. You would not buy cattle and not expect to learn to care. The Scriptures say that a Godly man is kind to his beasts.

Bees have diseases and parasites that must be dealt with. A neighbor, or a community mosquito spraying can poison your bees (and all the wild pollinators as well). You need to know how to protect them from the use of pesticides in the area.

If your bees do well in spite of neglect, they will blow off swarms in the spring, which will likely irritate your neighbors (especially when the bees take up residence in their house walls), and it will be a devastating loss to you. You wouldn’t raise cattle and let your calves run off. Good swarm management is critical. 

I highly recommend getting into a good local bee club. Find who are the best beekeepers and get a local mentor.

Beekeeping is a wonderful hobby and you will get more benefits from pollination than you do from the honey.

Just be sure that it’s right for you. Just as some people should not have pets or livestock, some people should not have bees. If you are going to do it, do it right. Otherwise, try to attract a beekeeper to your neighborhood to get your garden pollinated.

Dave ” 

Here are several resources to check out:  Top bar hive plan  great beekeeping magazine




Medicinal Post of the Day: Cinnamon





Increases perspiration

Helps increase circulation

Helps control blood sugar levels

Helps relieve congestion. good in salves for this.

Warming to the skin. Can be used in soap making.

Aids in relief of menstrual cramps and helps to regulate menstrual cycles. Said to relieve heavy bleeding during menses.

Aids in relief of colic

Said to help alleviate anxiety and stress

Cinnamon oil can relieve toothache pain

Oils help relieve neuralgia pain, arthritic pain and headaches

Aids in weight reduction as it increases the digestive system action (peristalsis)

The tannins in the bark  will help alleviate nosebleeds


Helps to relieve diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

Cinnamon oil is widely used in herbal preparations, although the bark and powdered preparations may be used as well.

Mouthwash:  Add 1/2 teaspoonful powder in a glass of warm water. Food grade essential oil may be used also. Use a couple of drops of essential oil because the oil preparation is highly concentrated.  Swish liquid inside mouth, gargle and spit.

Tincture: Add 10-12 teaspoons of cinnamon in 1-1/4 cup vodka. Shake well. Add 1-1/3 cup spring water to the vodka, let set for 2 weeks and shake the bottle occasionally. After 2 weeks, strain the liquid, pour into a sterile bottle, cap and keep in the refrigerator. May be used as a mouthwash. It can also be used to treat common colds and influenza. Per the references, up to 5 ml of the tincture may be used in a tea up to 3 times per day.

Decoction: The bark of cinnamon may be used for treatment of diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea and vomiting. It may be used for renal disorders or weak kidneys.

Powder/Capsules:  May be taken in capsule form for control of blood sugar, weight loss, the common cold, influenza per bottle instructions.

Essential oil: Use 5 drops oil in boiling water and inhale the steam for relief of coughing and congestion. Be careful not to burn delicate mucous membranes with inhalation. Keep face at least 8-10 inches away from steam.

Massage Oil. Dilute 1 ml of essential oil in at least 25 ml of a carrier oil such as almond, sunflower, coconut, extra virgin olive oil, etc. for massage on sore muscles, abdominal colic, arthritic or painful joints, muscle spasms.

Compress. Soak a pad in the decoction of diluted tincture to relieve arthritic and rheumatic pain.


Sources: 1.

                 2. The Complete Medicinal Herbal by Penelope Ody, pg. 48.